Busuk hawar

Class: Jamur
Common Name: Busuk hawar
Scientific Name: Alternaria solani
Potential Host:

Members of the solanaceae family, but mainly found on tomato, potato, eggplant, and okra

Who Am I?

When it comes to tomato and potato plants, early blight is one of the most prevalent fungal diseases in the world. Early blight can be found wherever tomatoes and potatoes are cultivated. The pathogen, Alternaria solani, can survive on plant debris that were left behind in fields. Additionally, several weeds serve as potential sources of infection.

An early blight infection is likely to occur during periods of warm and humid weather. The fungus is able to penetrate plant tissues through cuticle, stomata, and injured tissues. Symptoms can be seen within several days after the initial infection. Generally speaking, the infection starts on older leaves causing typical concentric necrosis rings. As the disease progresses, a formation of yellow halos can occur around the spots. When left untreated, the infection leads to substantially dry canopies and deformed and unmarketable fruits.

Control Measures

Tanaman atau bibit yang tahan terhadap penyakit merupakan syarat penting dalam budidaya.

Kebersihan area penanaman adalah hal terpenting, hindarkan tanaman dari gulma, sisa-sisa tanaman, bagian tanaman yang rusak, pertumbuhan tanaman yang tidak di ingginkan dan tanaman lain yang bukan merupakan tanaman utama budidaya.

Untuk mengurangi terjadinya infeksi pada pertumbuhan tanaman diperlukan beberapa teknik dan cara.

Jarak tanam sangat penting dalam budidaya, tanaman harus terhindar dari kerapatan yang tinggi dengan tujuan sebaran cahaya dapat terserap sempurna keseluruh bagian tanaman. Jika kerapatan tanaman tinggi menyebabkan daun dan buah-buah cepat kering pada saat kelembaban udara tinggi.

Bagian tanaman yang rusak tidak diperbolehkan berada disekitar area penanaman, hal ini akan mempermudah sebaran hama dan penyakit. Begituhalnya dengan sterilisasi dari alat-alat pertanian yang telah terinfeksi penyakit harus di hindarkan ke area penanaman terutama area yang basah.

Jika jaringan tanaman tertutup dan tidak terluka, memperpendek durasi musim basah dengan mempercepat pengeringan daun dikarenakan sirkulasi udara yang baik dan kondisi lingkungan yang bersih.

Drainase tanah sangat penting dikarenakan jika terdapat genangan air akan meningkatkan sebaran penyakit.

Untuk menjaga kelembaban tanah terdapat beberapa teknik salah satunya menggunakan polyethylene untuk mengurangi penguapan dalam tanam.

Produk yang digunakan oleh satu atau sebagian dari dunia adalah mengandung bahan aktif sebagai berikut:

chlorothalonil, iprodione, difenoconazole, cymoxanil, famoxadone, azoxystrobin, thiophanate methyl, pyraclostrobin, tebuconzole, mancozeb, dan maneb.

*Names marked in red are considered to be highly poisonous to beneficial insects.

*Names marked in green are considered to be organic and IPM (integrated pest management) compatible.

Caution and careful notice should be taken when using any plant protection products (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides). It is the grower’s sole responsibility to keep track of the legal uses and permissions with respect to the laws in their country and destination markets. Always read the instructions written on labels, and in a case of contradiction, work in accordance to the product label. Keep in mind that information written on the label usually applies to local markets. Pest control products intended for organic farming are generally considered to be less effective in comparison to conventional products. When dealing with organic, biologic, and to some extent a small number of conventional chemical products, a complete eradication of a pest or disease will often require several iterations of a specific treatment or combination of treatments.

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