గ్రేప్వైన్ లీఫ్రోల్ వ్యాధి

Class: వైరస్లు
Common Name: గ్రేప్వైన్ లీఫ్రోల్ వ్యాధి
Potential Host:

Grapes

Who Am I?

Grapevine leafroll disease is actually a group of viruses found throughout the world. The disease is transmitted by the grapevine mealybug called planococcus ficus. Approximately one hour of feeding upon infected vines is enough for mealybugs to contract the virus.

Mealybugs lose the ability to infect new vines with grapevine leafroll disease after four days of contracting it. The virus does not transfer from the adult female to her offspring.

The movement of mealybugs in the vineyard is partially independent and partially passive (with the aid of ants), which could explain some of the spreading patterns. The virus tends to first spread from one infected vine to another vine in the same row. The introduction of the disease to different adjacent rows takes place later on. Introduction of the disease in healthy, virus-free vineyards is caused by the mealybug vector.

Vines infected with the disease exhibit a reduction in the quantity and quality of fruit that comes from an overall decrease in the contents and accumulation rates of sugars. Generally speaking, wine grape varieties are found to be less tolerant to the effects of the disease; therefore, wine grape varieties suffer significant yield losses.

The symptoms vary in red and white varieties. In red varieties, it is common to see interveinal reddening of the leaves, a state when leaves become red though the veins remain green. In white varieties, the symptoms are fewer and less defined such that it may include mild chlorosis and curling of leaf edges. In some cases, symptoms aren’t clear enough.

Quick tip: It is easy to confuse symptoms of the virus with those of magnesium deficiency. There is no treatment for the virus; therefore, it is not possible to cure a diseased vine.

Control Measures

వైరస్‌లకు చికిత్సలు లేవు. సోకిన మొక్కలు నయం చేయబడవు; అందువల్ల, వైరస్ వ్యాప్తిని నివారించడంపై దృష్టి ఉండాలి. ఒకవేళ కొన్ని మొక్కలు మాత్రమే సోకితే, పొలం నుండి మొక్కలు తొలగించబడాలి.

కీటకాల జనాభాను గుర్తించడానికి తెగులు పర్యవేక్షణ పద్ధతులను (ఉచ్చులు లాంటివి) ఉపయోగించండి.

ప్రపంచంలోని ఒకటి లేదా అంతకంటే ఎక్కువ ప్రాంతాల్లో ఉపయోగించే ఉత్పత్తులు ఈ క్రింది పదార్థాలను కలిగి ఉండవచ్చు:

సల్ఫోక్సాఫ్లోర్, స్పైరోటెట్రామాట్, బుప్రోఫెజైన్, చెనోపోడియం యొక్క సారం, క్లోర్‌పైరిఫాస్, ఇమిడాక్లోప్రిడ్, థియామెథోక్సామ్, అసెటమిప్రిడ్, మరియు థియాక్లోప్రిడ్.

వేప నూనె, తంగేడు నూనె, ఖనిజ నూనె, మరియు డిటర్జెంట్లు (పారిశ్రామిక సబ్బు) ముఖ్యంగా వ్యవసాయ వినియోగం కోసం రూపొందించబడింది.

Caution and careful notice should be taken when using any plant protection products (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides). It is the grower’s sole responsibility to keep track of the legal uses and permissions with respect to the laws in their country and destination markets. Always read the instructions written on labels, and in a case of contradiction, work in accordance to the product label. Keep in mind that information written on the label usually applies to local markets. Pest control products intended for organic farming are generally considered to be less effective in comparison to conventional products. When dealing with organic, biologic, and to some extent a small number of conventional chemical products, a complete eradication of a pest or disease will often require several iterations of a specific treatment or combination of treatments.

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