Tomato, potato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, melon, pumpkin, watermelon, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, garlic, kohlrabi, lettuce, onion, peas, radish, spinach, and turnip
Verticillium wilt is a fatal disease that affects a wide range of vegetable crops. The pathogen survives in the soil as dormant microsclerotia (small survival bodies) and favors cool to moderate weather conditions. Plant debris can serve as an overwintering site for these fungi. Both Verticillium species cause nearly the same symptoms.
Initial symptoms of Verticillium wilt include the sudden yellowing of foliage that typically appears on one side of leaves. Generally, older leaves are affected first. The symptoms progress up the plant; eventually, the entire plant becomes affected and dies.
Peeling away the outer layers of affected stems or branches may reveal a brown streak in the vascular tissue. Infected plants may exhibit wilting during the hottest part of the day, but can recover at night.
Unfortunately, plants infected with Verticillium cannot be cured and will eventually die. Therefore, prevention is a key factor.
Crop rotation: Do not grow crops that are highly susceptible to Verticillium wilt in the same field year after year. Rotate susceptible crops with less susceptible crops such as corn.
Resistant varieties: There are varieties resistant to verticillium wilt. For instance, some tomato varieties are marked with the letter “V” after the variety name.
Sanitation: Eliminate potential sources of verticillium in your field:
*Keep weeds under control; they can often serve as a reservoir for this fungi.
*Discard old debris from infected plants. Don’t bury or compost debris.
*Decontaminate tools and equipment that came into contact with infected plants with a bleach solution in order to prevent the spread of the fungi.
Soil disinfection: Solar disinfection of the soil (solarization or pasteurization) can be implemented in sunny areas. This involves covering prepared and moistened soil with a polyethylene film 35–50 μm thick and keeping it in place for at least 1 month during a sunny period of the year. This has the potential to reduce the presence of the fungi in the top layers of soil. It is common for solar disinfection to be accompanied by fumigants such as metam-sodium.
The following are fungicides used in one or more parts of the world: benomyl\carbendazim and propamocarb.
*Names marked in red are considered to be highly poisonous to beneficial insects.
*Names marked in green are considered to be organic and IPM (integrated pest management) compatible.